The Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape (BSL) encompasses the Namdapha-Hkakaborazi-Gaoligongshan protected areas in India, Myanmar and China respectively. The proposed BSL would cover Namdapha National Park (Arunachal Pradesh-India), Hkakaborazi National Park (Kachin state, Myanmar), and Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China) as well as a number of other protected areas. These are important protected areas with a common ecosystem shared by many species of global importance, such as the tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard, common leopard, Hoolock gibbon, and Namdapha flying squirrel, as well as many flowering plant species. Despite the physical boundaries, these globally important species are widely distributed in the protected areas of this complex, which is one of the most safeguarded habitats for these species in the region. Numerous ethnic groups have lived across this landscape for millennia and possess diverse socio-cultural and socioeconomic variations. The interdependency of the area’s population and the natural resources of the landscape is complicated by poverty, inaccessibility, and insufficient development opportunities.

Region: Eastern Himalayas
Country: China, India, Myanmar
Latitude: Min:26.549949 Max:29.295922
Longitude: Min: 96.278551 Max: 99.43186
Total Area: N/A


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  • Important Bird Areas
  • Protected Area
  • Corridor
  • Ecology
  • Globe Land Cover
  • Landscape
  • HKH Boundary

Protected Areas:

Protected Area NameIUCNCategoryType
Gaoligonshan Nature Reserve VStrict Nature Reserve
Hukaung Valley Wildlife SanctuaryIIIWildlife Sanctuary
Bumhpabum Wildlife SanctuaryIIIWildlife Sanctuary
Namphada National ParkIINational Park
Hkakborazi National ParkIINational Park
Hponkanrazi Wildlife SanctuaryIIINational Park

Corridor Areas:


Ecosystem Services:

The physiographic condition of the Brahmaputra-Salween landscape has allowed many endemic species and populations to be geographically isolated from other populations of the same species, therefore create significant genetic diversity. The vast array of new habitats created by the uplift of the Himalayas and surrounding mountains across a wide altitudinal range are not only the survival centre for relict species but also a special place for speciation and evolution. The landscape provides various goods and services to the communities in and around the PAs. Several plant and animal species are integral part of culture and tradition of people living in the landscape. Some of the ecosystem services provided by its various ecosystems include: food crops, fodder, fuel, medicinal plants and other non-timber forest products, carbon sequestration, climate regulation, nutrient cycling, soil quality maintenance, and irrigation. The landscape serves as important habitat for wild animals and plants of global importance, habitat for endemic flora and fauna, pollination for crop and wild plants, recreation, aesthetic value etc.  However, the potential of the biodiversity in the BSL in terms of actual economic values has not been critically examined. With regard to benefits from protected areas, there is often a significant correlation between positive attitude of communities towards protected areas and their perception of conservation benefits and benefits resulting from management of these areas.


The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, with support from the MacArthur Foundation, has been implementing the landscape approach to biodiversity conservation through the development of protected areas in the Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape. Strategic recommendations on promoting landscape conservation; implementing decisions of CBD; enhancing collaboration for interdisciplinary research, knowledge exchange and information sharing; and addressing climate change impact and identifying adaptation strategy has been made. Considerable progress has been made in promoting biodiversity conservation through an integrated approach linking conservation with socio-cultural and economic elements. Synergies have also been built between local, national, and regional stakeholders working in biodiversity conservation. The initiative has improved understanding among the partners in the Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape initiative about the significance of conservation at the landscape level and has created considerable interest among scientists, policy makers, and the general public. 

ICIMOD’s partners in the Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape initiative are:


Baoshan Management Bureau of GLGS National Nature Reserve; Nujiang Management Bureau of GLGS National Nature Reserve; Yunnan University; Peking University; Fudan University; Southwest Forestry College;  Yunnan Academy of Forestry Sciences; WWF-Yunnan office;  Centre for Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity ; ICRAF China Program; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences


Ministry of Environment and Forest; North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology (NERIST); North-east Hill Council (NEHC); Rainforest Research Institute (RFRI); Wildlife Institute of India (WII); State Remote Sensing Application Centre (SRSAC); Zoological Survey of India (ZSI); Botanical Survey of India (BSI); Forest Survey of India (FSI); Indian Meteorological Department (IMD); World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF India); Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF); Ashoka Trust for Ecology and Environment (ATREE); The Missing Link (TML- India); Future Generations Arunachal (FGA); Ecosystems-India; Local organisation – Society for Environmental Awareness and Conservation of Wildlife (SEACOW)


Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD) of the Forest Department, Government of Myanmar; Myitkyina University; Wildlife Conservation Society; 

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